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Definition Of Strabismus​

Strabismus, commonly known as “crossed eyes” or “lazy eye,” is a vision condition characterized by the misalignment of one or both eyes. This results in the eyes not working together and may lead to double vision or amblyopia (lazy eye).

Risk Factors For


In some cases, when the eyes are misaligned, the brain may receive conflicting visual information from each eye, leading to double vision (diplopia).

The most noticeable symptom is the misalignment of one eye in relation to the other. This can manifest as one eye turning inward (esotropia), outward (exotropia), upward (hypertropia), or downward (hypotropia). The misalignment may be constant or intermittent.

Individuals with strabismus, especially children, may squint or close one eye to eliminate double vision and see more clearly with the non-deviated eye.

Prolonged use of the eye with strabismus, especially in cases of intermittent strabismus, can lead to eye strain, discomfort, and fatigue.

The appearance of one eye may differ from the other due to constant misalignment, which can affect the positioning of the eyelid, the size of the eye, and the direction of gaze.

Strabismus can lead to self-esteem issues, social challenges, and psychological distress, particularly in children and adolescents who may experience teasing or social exclusion.

To align the eyes more effectively, some individuals may tilt or turn their head to one side. This compensatory head posture is more common in children with strabismus.

Strabismus symptoms may be more subtle in some cases and more pronounced in others. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential, especially in children, to prevent the development of amblyopia and to ensure the best possible visual outcomes. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of strabismus, it is important to seek evaluation and treatment by an eye care specialist, such as an ophthalmologist or a pediatric ophthalmologist, as soon as possible.

Treatment Types

Prism Lenses

Prism lenses are special eyeglass lenses that can be used to shift the visual image of one eye so that it aligns with the image from the other eye. Prism glasses can be prescribed to manage certain types of strabismus, especially when it is associated with a small degree of misalignment.

In some cases, strabismus can be managed with prescription eyeglasses. Glasses can help correct refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism) that may be contributing to the eye misalignment.

Vision therapy is a specialized program of eye exercises and activities designed to improve eye coordination and strengthen the eye muscles. It can be effective for certain types of strabismus, especially in children.

If amblyopia is present due to strabismus, the primary focus is often on treating the lazy eye. This may involve:

Patching: Covering the stronger eye with an eye patch to encourage the weaker eye to work and develop better vision.
Atropine Drops: Using atropine eye drops in the stronger eye to blur vision temporarily and promote visual development in the weaker eye.

as bifocal or multifocal lenses, which can help address issues with near and distance vision coordination.

In certain cases, adjustable suture surgery may be performed. This procedure allows for fine-tuning of the eye muscle position after the initial surgery while the patient is awake and alert.

Depending on the individual’s specific needs, a combination of treatments may be recommended to achieve the best results. For example, a person may undergo strabismus surgery followed by vision therapy to improve eye coordination.

In some cases, Botox injections may be used to temporarily weaken the overactive eye muscles, allowing the misaligned eye to align more effectively. This is often a temporary solution and may be followed by surgery.

The choice of treatment depends on the individual’s age, the type of strabismus, the presence of amblyopia, and other factors. Early intervention is crucial, especially in children, to promote normal visual development and prevent permanent vision loss or complications. Treatment plans are typically tailored to the individual’s unique needs, and regular follow-up with an eye care specialist, such as a pediatric ophthalmologist or strabismus specialist, is essential to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Strabismus?

Strabismus, commonly known as “crossed eyes” or “lazy eye,” is a vision condition characterized by the misalignment of one or both eyes. This results in the eyes not working together and may lead to double vision or amblyopia (lazy eye).

Strabismus can have various causes, including genetic factors, muscle imbalances, neurological conditions, trauma, refractive errors, and underlying medical conditions.

While strabismus often develops in childhood, it can also occur or persist in adulthood due to various factors, including eye strain, health conditions, or a recurrence of childhood strabismus.

Common types of strabismus include esotropia (inward turning of an eye), exotropia (outward turning of an eye), hypertropia (upward turning of an eye), and hypotropia (downward turning of an eye).

Symptoms of strabismus may include misaligned eyes, double vision, eye strain, difficulty focusing, squinting, head tilting, and, in some cases, reduced depth perception.

In some cases, strabismus can recur, especially if the underlying causes are not fully addressed. Regular follow-up with an eye care specialist is important to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Yes, adults with strabismus can benefit from treatment. While treatment outcomes may vary, interventions like vision therapy or strabismus surgery can help improve eye alignment and reduce symptoms.

Strabismus can often be managed effectively with treatment, but a complete “cure” may not always be achievable. The goal of treatment is to align the eyes, improve eye coordination, and prevent complications.